Jharkhand Culture Portrays The Aesthetic Social Life Of Entire State
Having been carved out from erstwhile Bihar state of India on 15 November 2000, the state of Jharkhand projects its rich cultural amalgamation in the eastern part of India. With Bihar state surrounding it from north; Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh states covering from western region while its southwestern side surrounded through Odisha and West Bengal states today’s Jharkhand state literally maintains the culture which mixes many traditions and reflects them as well. Cultural richness of Jharkhand is not only found in its urban establishments of capital Ranchi; sub-capital Dumka; industrial hubs Jamshedpur, Dhanbad and Bokaro Steel City et al but its rural areas which project its tribal identity and rich cultural aesthetics in total.
Distinguished with its geo-political cultural identity, Jharkhand state has preserved its cultural identity since several centuries. Unique languages and tribal lifestyle reconnect this state with the Harappa period. It is also keenly assessed through typical rock paintings, food culture, dance, music and people’s lifestyles. The impact of its erstwhile rulers Kalinga Empire (of ancient Orissa) is still analyzed in the culture. Other rulers like Munda Rajas; Mughals and later rulers British Empire brought drastic changes in this region. Legendary heroes of tribals of Jharkhand state Birsa Munda, Sidho and Kanho still remains admirable figures who fought against the oppressive British rulers in the colonial rule. A half century of people’s movement for Jharkhand was materialized after too much political and social jingoism and today this state has emerged into one of the biggest tribal forces in the country. State’s tribal cultural heritage has got a boost through enriched socio-economic avenues which project its culture on the multiple levels.
Arts & Crafts in Jharkhand
It is obvious that those regions of India which are dominated by tribal groups have been always witnessing tremendous growth rate of arts and crafts. Such things have reflected in Jharkhand as well which has its distinction of being an original tribal state in the country. Some of the most notable arts & crafts of this state which should be considered region’s primary identities are the extensive woodworks, bamboo works, pitkar paintings, tribal ornaments and stone carving amongst others. Such arts and crafts are indeed the main identities of the common masses here so one witnesses many such beautifully carved wooden or bamboo products in all parts of the state. Their designs and structures define the true craftsmanship of the masses. Although paitkar paintings and stone carvings are less practiced nowadays due to non-promotion by the authorities but they remain ultimate and are perfect cultural identities of this region.
Undoubtedly woodcraft portray the original skill of tribal groups in Jharkhand state. As the state has abundance dense forestry area its richness in woods has augured to keep this art sustainable. Professional artisans of this state therefore create variety of wooden articles which are liked by the common households almost everywhere. Beautiful designs of various such articles meant for the household uses are perfect outcomes of creative artisans in Jharkhand. Some of the most common woodcraft designed in this region are beautiful door panels, boxes, windows, wooden spoons or showpiece items amongst others carved from such wooden raw materials.
Jharkhand is also famous for its bamboo crafts due to the abundance of variety of bamboos in this state. Bamboos are found in different parts of the state’s rich forests. Mostly they are thinner but highly flexible therefore strong enough to make them best suitable for bamboo crafting. State’s artisans prepare many such things from bamboos including famous artifacts of baskets and haunting to fishing equipment which are specialties in this region.
Once upon a time paitkar paintings would rule the roost in Jharkhand region but now it is in the verge of extinction due to the disinterest of authorities towards it. Such paintings have identity of being the oldest of Indian tribal paintings. Jharkhand propagates this type of paintings which is also denoted with the name scroll paintings whose themes commonly symbolize life after death.
Some more arts and crafts of Jharkhand that distinguish this region are unique metal works of the state’s Malhar and Tentri communities to finest stone carving arts representing its traditional art and craft amongst others. Mainly practiced by the tribes stone carving is literally in extinction phase nowadays but they remain state’s tribal identities. Similarly, uniquely designed ornaments of gold, silver and beeds project the true zest of region’s cultural identity and tradition. Toy making is one of the unique arts and crafts of Jharkhand in state’s hilly areas. Uniquely designed agile puppets are prepared from palm leaf silver painted with pink dots and finger paintings which portray beautiful art. Such art forms are cultural mosaic of the state that generations of its tribal communities Asurs; Santhals; Banjara; Bihor; Chero; Gond; Ho; Khond; Lohra; Mai Pahariya; Munda; Oraon; Kol and et al have nourished for several centuries.
Sculptures of Jharkhand
Jharkhand’s ancient past can be best explored through different types of sculptures present in many parts of the state including Itkhori nearby capital city Ranchi. Several antiquities can be seen in the state and famous ones are Megalith and Buddha stupa sculptures. Symbolizing the stone antiquities they are the protected structures or monuments from the ancient era. They have been prepared from stone, bronze and other items and they actually project the tribal culture of this region. Stone sculptures, megalith, Buddha stupas and many more are some of the few to name. Such antiquities also represent Jainism and Hinduism religions and some of them are even from the 9th and 10th centuries. Explorers can overview them particularly semi-precious stones, terracotta and metal sculptures that preserve the cultural identity of this region.
Architecture in Jharkhand
Tribal architecture of Jharkhand differs from the rest parts of country in many contexts. As the large scale inhabitants are tribes their lifestyles have impacted the architecture of this region since ancient era. Modern architecture has transformed this region faster but state’s architecture must be assessed how modern and ancient architectural forms project it to reflect its society. This state’s architectural richness has been transmitting since centuries for the generations to come.
Peculiar structures of ‘Ho’ villages are designed with the sacred groves with meeting & dancing grounds named Akhara alongside village street, pond, and bore wells to describe tribal culture of this region. As houses designed are commonly patterned thatched with the wild grass and muddy walls they showcase architectural uniqueness. They are equipped with the living room, bedroom, kitchen, playground and many more.
Drastic change has occurred in the architecture of Jharkhand in the last few decades. Modern developments in infrastructure can be seen in urban and semi-urban regions. High rise residential buildings/apartments have emerged and so are commercial establishments with the application of several modern architectural techniques. Modern developments have left direct impact on fast growth of the state. Concept of architecture has literally changed with such developments which are at par with other fast emerging regions in the country.
Folk Songs and Dances of Jharkhand
The cultural beauty of Jharkhand can be well observed through wonderful folk song and dance traditions in this region. The typical tribal dance and music culture define the sophistication of this area. Tribes inhabiting here always practice different forms of dances and songs and keep themselves enlivened to portray their culturally multi ethnic richness. Out of more than 30 aboriginal tribal communities inhabiting in Jharkhand sate in peace and harmony prominent ones like Santhals, Oraons, Mundas, Kharias, Hos and Cheros are famous for their traditional dances and folk songs. They have unique cultures and so do they participate in many cultural activities throughout the year. Some of the unique tribal and folk dances in Jharkhand state are as follows.
Folk Dances of Jharkhand
Jharkhand state’s Munda tribal community is known for performing typical Paika dance forms. Such dances are themed with artificial representations of unique rituals which pertain to the preparations for the imaginary wars. The dancers therefore begin dances through holding bows, arrows, spears, swords and shields while dancing as if ready them for an arm worship prior to them going into the wars. The dancers use shields and swords to project the martial character during this dance to portray their unique skills to handle sword and shields. The fast beat of Madal indicates climax of this dance form. With the changing scenario and developments in the societies the conceptual theme of this dance has literally changed. Now it is performed to welcome guests as well as enjoy certain happy occasions especially on wedding time. Dancers also perform it during the religious festivals like Dussehra and other pujas. Dancers are equipped with the musical accompaniments Dhol, Nagara, Shehnai and Ranbheri to make it truly mesmerizing dance form. Dancers wear unique costume of protective chest blades, headgears and bells around the ankles before performing this dance.
Tribal Dances of Jharkhand
It is well said that Mundas, Santhals and Oraon tribes or Adivasis of Jharkhand are dancers and singers by birth. The songs they sing or the dances they are involved into create the thoroughly joyous atmosphere to showcase their festive spirits to the bst. Beauty of such dances becomes manifold once the dancers wear their indigenous traditional tribal costumes and jewellery and use typical musical instruments on such occasions.
Santhals tribes of Jharkhand inhabiting in the Chota Nagpur hilly plateaus of Santhal Parganas have the tradition of Hunta Dances. It is a rigorous dance form and is considered powerful as well. It therefore needs the utilization of ample energy and vigor. This dance is symbolic of one’s preparation for hunting for that tribes prepare themselves with the bows and arrows to stalk and finally kill an animal. Distinct features of this dance are miming, slow strong steps and measured movements.
One of the most popular dances in Jharkhand, Mundari Dance is common amongst the Mundari tribes of this state. This dance form doesn’t have any restriction of gender or age as anybody and everybody can participate in it. It is in practice to celebrate the welcoming of newlywed couples. This dance form has repetitive movements and ample singing henceforth make great fun.
With extremely powerful music tribal Barao Dance of Jharkhand is famous due to its richness in the variety it showcases with the participation of men and women. State’s Oraon community usually perform such dances in Hazaribagh Goomla area where they are in the majority. This tribe is also denoted with Kuruks of Jharkhand. Both men and women participate in such types of community dances.
Jitia Karam Dance
As Oranos tribes of Jharkhand consider Karam or Kadamb tree sacred they practice Jitia Karam dance to worship that tree. The dance form accompanies with the high pitched sounds and all types of rhythms make it highly interesting dance form.
Jenana Jhumur Dance
Jenana Jhumur Dance is very much popular amongst the Santhal and Nagpuri communities of Jharkhand state. Usually organized during the period of cultivation in the rainy seasons this dance form remains a traditional dance form of this state. The dance is a sort of devotion by the tribal communities to ask for good harvest from the gods.
Mardani Jhumur Dance
Another dance after the conclusion of harvest, Mardani Jhumur dance is performed by Nagpuri tribal men. Dancers dance along with using various musical accompaniments like Shenai, Dhol, Kara, Nakara, Jhanj and Kartal to project their semi martial dance art talent.
Jhitka & Danga Dance
Beauty of Jhitka and Danga dance form is that it accommodates both male and female dancers to dance together. This dance is meant to celebrate various types of feudal traditions through their instant joviality expressions.
Meant to call for the rains, Lahasuya dance and songs looks amazing withy the accompaniment of Madol’s rhythmic beats. This dance welcomes presence of men and women together.
Considered famous dance form in Jharkhand’s Chotonagpur area the Domkach dance is unique in this region common on the occasions of weddings. Bridegroom’s family women take part in this dance that is considered a ceremonial dance once the bridegroom leaves for bride’s house. It is understood that most men already leave for baraat with bridegroom all women present at home take part in this dance to keep them awake and to entertain themselves to the best extent possible.
Ghora Naach Dance
Another unique dance form for the wedding occasions, Ghora Naach is commonly performed with the menfolk at home wearing loose horse puppets around their waists to dance. Original folk instruments are used to create rhythm for this dance form.
Seraikella Chhau Dance
One of the famous dance forms of eastern India Seraikella Chhau dance has its identity of one of the three Chhau dance forms in this region. This dance form is very much popular in the states of Jharkhand, Orissa and West Bengal. It showcases martial arts besides incorporating Veera Rasa of Indian dramatic spectrum during its performance. It remains a popular dance form due to the combination of sophistication and appealing features.
Performing Arts in Jharkhand
Jharkhand state is equally popular for its performing arts. As generations of tribes and general communities have delved into region’s cultural mosaic since centuries, one can analyze splendid performing arts performances here. Rich culture of this region is best defined through wonderful performing arts performances in this area. The performing arts project cross-cultural influences besides local non-tribal communities. That is why state’s performing arts remain so impactful.
Cinema in Jharkhand
Jharkhand’s regional cinema is denoted with Santali cinema whose presence can be seen in the state and nearby states of West Bengal, Orissa, Assam and even neighboring country Nepal’s Jhapa and Morang districts. The tribes named Santhals speak Santali language in which such regional movies are made. Although it is one of the notable art forms in the region but Santali cinema hasn’t attained any popularity ever. This all has happened due to lack of interest and motivation to the Santali filmmakers and artists.
Religion in Jharkhand
Jharkhand state maintains religious harmony with its inhabitants comprising of the believers of Hinduism, Islam, Sarna, Christianity and Sikhism amongst others. State’s majority religious community is Hinduism which comprise of more than 60 percent of the total population of the state. Believers of Islam and animistic Sarna religions constitute 13 percent each of the total state population. The Christians comprise of approximately 4 percent of the total population of this state. The population of the followers of other religions Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism are less than one percent of the total population of the state. Most of the tribes of Jharkhand practice the animistic Sarna religion which according to some Hindus is the part of Hinduism religion itself.
Festivals in Jharkhand
Entire Jharkhand maintains joviality and liveliness through various popular festivals. Common masses take part in them for the great fun moments and to celebrate cultural ethos of this region. The festivals are of social as well as religious nature. They leave impeccable impact on the minds of locals as well as visitors as and when held.
Jharkhand’s Chotanagpur Plateau region is famous for its local Karam Festival. As this occasion is celebrated with great pomp and show amongst Oraon Tribes it remains notable in the region due to its impact on the social and religious lives of the common masses. This festival is usually organized after a fortnight post Kunwaar-Shukl-Paksh celebration. With the announcement of the festival date local people starts their preparation. Notable preparations on the occasion include buying various culinary products to cook and serve traditional dishes and of course to choose the vibrant clothes for this special occasion. People perform special Karam-Puja for that they arrange oil, sindoor and daliya. Adolescent boys and girls get special respect on this occasion in the context of families. Unmarried boys and girls wear special “Karam-clothes” on this occasion.
One of the religious festivals of Jharkhand namely Karma festival is popular amongst the local tribes. Those participating in this festival observe a round the clock fasting as devotees. People gather together to perform many cultural performances on this occasion. They keep a Sal tree in the midst of the open ground and perform pujas around it on this occasion.
Tribal communities of Jharkhand literally wait for the annual Sohrai festival to celebrate it with ample fun and frolic. It is associated with the cattle and is celebrated during the festival of the religious festivals like Diwali that usually falls in the month of November. During the festive celebrations the cattle are washed and worshipped. This is a time for the great amusement and performances of cattle such as bullfights are organized to multiply the fun and excitement.
With its identity of being the main festival of Jharkhand based tribes, Sarhul festival seeks the attention of large chunk of tribal communities in the state. This festival is meant to worship the Sal tree and so does it indicate worshipping nature so that villages could be well protected from all types of disasters and calamities.
Holi is celebrated in many parts of the country. People of Jharkhand also take keen interest in this Hindu festival and celebrate it with too much fun and frolic. This religious festival remains a charming occasion as people gather on this festive celebration. People meet each other and greet as well so do they colors each other to increase harmony, happiness and delight.
Considered one of the major festivals of Hindus Diwali is celebrated pan-India. Jharkhand state sees in its celebration complete with religious fervor with people celebrating it in happiness and thorough exuberance they develop. One unique aspect of Diwali celebration in Jharkhand is that it starts two days early then the rest parts of the country actual celebrate it due to honoring the local Dhanvantari God or physician of the Gods as they claim. Once this festival begins songs in honor of deities are sung and extra ‘Arti’ performance sung besides lighting oil/ghee diya lights. Common practice of bursting crackers and symbolic tiny footprints of the Goddess of Wealth, Mother Lakshmi remain key features. Rangolis are designed on this auspicious ceremonial occasion. Jharkhand tribes worship Goddess Kali on the occasion of Diwali festival.
The festival of Ramnavami is a major Hindu festival celebrated in all parts of the country. People of Jharkhand take keen interest in this festival and therefore celebrate it with the same pomp and show that one sees in other parts of the country to observe Lord Ram’s birth. People usually observe fasts and perform special prayers on this occasion.
People of Jharkhand celebrate Dussehra to worship the Goddess Durga every year. This 10-day celebration is an indication of the incarnation of cosmic energy which the celebrations project. Entire state sees the Ramlila enactment in which the victory of Lord Rama over the demon king Ravana is celebrated in thorough rejoice while the huge king Ravana effigies are burnt.
Basant Panchami Festival
The festival of Basant Panchami is famous in Jharlhand as much as in other parts of the country. Celebrated with too much pomp and joviality this festival is major one on the occasion of spring season while winter finally departs. Kite flying and other activities are common on this occasion.
Chhath Puja Festival
Celebrated to worship the Sun-God, famous Chhath Puja is major religious festival in Jharkhand and its nearby states in the country. It remains one of the notable festivals in this region and it is worth seeing women worshipping setting and rising Sun to showcase their sincerity and devotion to God. This festival is celebrated twice in a year during Hindi month Chaitra and Kartik.
Jityya Bhaiya Dooj
Jitya Bhaiya Dooj festival is another major celebration in the Jharkhand state as is its exuberance in the rest parts of the country. This festival showcases the pure dedication of lovely relationship between brothers and sisters. Young boys and girls celebrate this festival to reignite their sibling relationships.
Muslims of Jharkhand celebrate famous Eid-ul-Fitr festival which is celebrated to observe the end of one month of fasting and piousness. This festival is celebrated throughout the world and one can see the religious harmony of people from all religions wishing each other and treating with the sweets. People of all age groups wear new dresses on this occasion to celebrate this happy occasion.
Also called Bakri-Id or Eid-ul-Zuha the festival of sacrifice Eid-ul-Adha remains an important festival of Muslims throughout the world. People of Jharkhand celebrate this occasion on the 10th day of the Islamic calendar’s twelfth month that also marks the fulfillment of Hajj for those who visit the holy pilgrimage to Mecca.
The celebration of Muharrum festival is another Muslim festival which Jharkhand’s Muslims celebrate. It is mainly the commemoration of Holy Prophet Muhammed’s grandson Imam Hussain’s martyrdom. People project their shock and grievance by remembering that occasion during the Muharrum festival. People come out to the streets on this occasion.
Literature in Jharkhand
Both regional literature and the ones of national repute have seen irrefutable contribution of the seasoned and budding literati of Jharkhand. Several personalities from this state have attained fame and popularity on even international levels. The writers have contributed extensively in the Hindi, English, Urdu and several regional languages. They have contributed in the fields of literature, academics and journalism as well. Here are some of the prominent personalities from Jharkhand whose contributions in literature are at par and worth laudable.
- Dayamani Barla
- Khagendra Thakur
- Anuj Lugun
- Ram Krishna Singh
- Gerald Durrell
- Ram Dayal Munda
- Ram Krishna Singh
The list is too long when it comes to projecting the regional literature of Jharkhand state. Many newcomers have brought new renaissance in the field of literature here. Good number of emerging writers in English, Hindi, Urdu and regional languages are giving their valuable contributions to shape the literary environment of this region. A few of them have already come into national and global limelight and are projecting this region globally.
Cultural Festivals in Jharkhand
Besides religious festivals cultural and social festivals of Jharkhand define the true worth of this region’s tribal lifestyle. Such festivals project rich tribal culture of this region and therefore they enchant the visitors from even many far off areas. Some of the commonest of those cultural festivals & fairs here include Barura Sharif, Belgada Mela Simaria, Bhadli Mela Itkhori, Chatra Mela, Kolhaiya Mela Chatra, Kolhua Mela Hunterganj, Kunda Mela Pratappur, Kundri Mela Chatra, Lawalong Mela, Rabda Sharif, Sangat and Tutilawa Mela Simaria and et al. Cultural festivals Tusu Parab or Makar; Hal Punhya; Bhagta Parab; Rohin; Bandna; Kunda Mela in Pratappur; Kolhua Mela in Hunterganj; Chatra Mela and Belgada Mela in Simaria et al leave big impact through projecting cultural amalgamation of this region.
Costumes of Jharkhand
The dressing sense of people in Jharkhand should be understood in the context of their lifestyles and tribal identities. Large chunk of people wear traditional costumes which prevail in the state. Such costumes portray the simplicity and elegance they carry with their themes. The dresses are mainly single dressing options. The state has great influence of India’s traditional wear in terms of men’s as well as women’s dressing sense.
As many tribes inhabit in Jharkhand state large chunk of its population wear the tribal dressing. Tribes of Santhal Pargana or Paharis and Santhals have different styles of dressing from the rest. Their textured fabrics differ from others. In general, tribal men in Jharkhand wear the one-piece dress namely Bhagwan dresses. With the change in lifestyles and constant developments there has occurred ample change in the dressing sense as well. The conventional and traditional tribal dresses exhibit culture and heritage but most of the people in semi-urban and urban areas prefer dhoti, kurta-pajama, shirts and pants which are usual dressing options in all parts of the country.
With the change of fashion trends women have adopted several modern dressing options. Silk, Chiffon and various other fine-textured fabrics are ultimate choices of theirs when they like to wear modern styled salwar suits and common Indian dressing patterns. Designer dressing is seen commonly in the urban areas but as far as rural tribal areas are concerned women still wear the typical sarees common in this region. The famous traditional dress which women of Jharkhand still want to wear and are indeed in craze are Panchi and Parhan traditional attire that women like to wear. Saree and blouses are though common in most societies of Jharkhand. Tribal women prefer saree and blouses with traditional imprints of tribes. They prefer cotton fabrics.
Cuisines of Jharkhand
The cuisines of Jharkhand offer wonderful food options in the category of vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. It must be noted that one can hardly explore traditional food options in the many restaurants of this state as such foods are only cooked in the personal homes. They haven’t been commercialized yet and therefore like other restaurants in the country those in Jharkhand state rather prepare food categories common everywhere. One can taste the original food options in tribal villages or in the tribal wedding ceremonies. Their unique tastes make them popular. Some dishes including Chilka Roti; Kanda; Sanai phool; Konhra phool; Barri Phutkal; Pechki; Joki; Saakhin; Handua; Putu; Khukhri and Ghattha amongst others are typical in Jharkhand state.
Baasi Bhath; Singhara or Samosa; Aloo Chop; Baiganee Chop and specially prepared Saags of Jharkhand like Munga Saag to Kalmi Saag; Gandhari Saag; Koinar Saag; Chakod Saag; Sarla Saag; Chench Saag; Beng Saag; Chimti Saag; Katai Saag; Dhhahdhhaa Saag; Golgola Saag; Khesaari Saag; Poi Saag; Palak Saag; Bathua Saag; Sanai Ful Saag and Futkal Saag et al are great tastes from this region. Jharkhand is famous for its festival foods. Cooked specially for such occasions Arsa; Nimki; Pitha; Kasar Larua; Murhi Larua; Lakhto; Gud chiwda; Chawal Laddu; Balu Sahi and Rose cake et al. In non-vegetarian foods famous dishes like those from variety of Prawns; Mutton Biryani; Shaahi Jhinga Masaledaar; Jhor Waali Machhli; Jhinga Biryaani; Bihari Kebabs; Chicken Tandoori and Kela Machali are great choices to make.
Besides above mentioned conventional food varieties the cuisines of Jharkhand are famous for its Litti and Chokha which is equally popular amongst the masses in in Bihar. This special delicacy is popular in Jharkhand as much as is it in the neighboring Bihar.
Fairs in Jharkhand
Notable fairs in Jharkhand which leave bigger impact in the region with impeccable impact to project the cultural identity while also propagating the trade and business avenues are worth studying. They are famous for the cattle deals and so do have cultural and religious values.
Kunda Mela in Pratappur
Famous for the large scale sale of cattle the Kunda Mela held in Pratappur has attained regional popularity. This fair is held during the Falgun Shivratri period and seeks attention of people from far off areas from the state.
Kolhua Mela in Hunterganj
Organized twice every year famous Kolhua Mela in Hunterganj is in the practice since time immemorial on Magh Basant Panchami and Chait Ramnaumi occasions. Out of many attractions in and around the location of this fair the ancient Goddess Kali Temple and scintillating lake in the foothills of hill appeal everybody. This fair is famous for its holy identity as most visitors come here to worship inside the temple on the top. Its origin is still unknown.
Held on the occasion of Durga Puja the famous Chatra Mela is organized in Jharkhand state since it was first started in 1882. It is a known cattle fair in the region.
Kundri Mela in Chatra
Held on the occasion of Kartik Purnima the famous Kundri Mela in Chatra was first held in 1930 and still continues every year.
Kolhaiya Mela in Chatra
It is said that Kolhaiya Mela in Chatra had been first started in perhaps 1925. Organized on every Magh Basant Panchami this festival is renowned cattle fair in the region.
Tutilawa Mela in Simaria
Famous cattle fair namely Tutilawa Mela in Simaria is held every Falgun Purnima since it was first held in 1935. It is rushed by large number of cattle buyers/sellers every year.
Held on the occasion of Aghan Purnia, this festival remains an attraction since it was first held in 1880. This festival welcomes ample rush every year.
Belgada Mela in Simaria
Started in the year 1920, Belgada Mela in Simaria is held annually during the Baisakh Purnima period. It is one of the few prominent cattle fairs in the state.
Bhadli Mela in Itkhori
Held nearby an ancient temple of the Goddess Kali and Lord Shiva, the famous Bhadli Mela in Itkhori is popular in the region. It is popular for religious gatherings on the occasion of Makar Sankaranti. Its exact origin details are not known till date.
Sangharo Mela in Chatra
Origin of Sangharo Mela in Chatra is not known till now. This festival is held on the occasion of in Sawan Purnima period.