Profile of Jharkhand

Quick Facts on Jharkhand

Country: India
Region: East India
Established: 15 November 2000
Capital: Ranchi
Largest city: Jamshedpur
Legislature: Unicameral (81 seats)
Parliamentary constituency: 14
National Highways: 1844 KMs
State Highways: 6880 KMs
High Court: Jharkhand High Court
• Total: 79,714 km2 (30,778 sq mi)
Area rank: 15th
Official Language: Hindi
State Animal: Elephant
State Bird: Koel
State Tree: Sal
State Flower: Palash
The newly formed State of Jharkhand is endowed with unique amalgamation of natural beauty, richcultural heritage, religious ambience and modern lifestyle thus making it a popular tourist destination. Jharkhand literally means "The Land of Forests" which is very true when viewed from topographic angle. 29% of the state is covered by 'jhars' (forests) and woodlands. Further it has an abundance of mineral resources. Formerly a part of Bihar State, it became a separate state on 15 November 2000 coinciding with the birth anniversary of legendary Birsa Munda after a long struggle. As the 28th state of the Indian Union, Jharkahnd is rapidly developing in terms of infrastructure & financial growth.

The state of Jharkhand is influenced by the culture of neighbouring states with which it shares its borders; Bihar lies to the north, Uttar Pradesh & Chhattisgarh to the west, West Bengal to the east and Odisha is to the south. Ranchi which was at the centre of Jharkhand movement is the Capital of Jharkhand, with Dumka being the sub capital. Other important cities include Jamshedpur which is large industrial city, Dhanbad and Bokaro Steel City. Today Jharkhand has an array of markets, shopping malls, fast food joints & multiplexes with the people of the state leading a comfortable & peaceful life. Hundreds of people flock to this state in search of new opportunities, business, or for leisure purposes and get amazed by the un-parallel beauty, art, culture & cosine of the state.

History of Jharkhand

To understand the people and culture of any place, it is imperative to know about the history of that region. Jharkhand has a history that spans back to over more than hundred years. It involves legends, revolts and the struggle of tribal heroes who laid the foundation stone for the formation of a separate State of Jharkhand as the 28th State of Indian Union.

History of JharkhandFossil remains and prehistoric artifacts in some places of Jharkhand point to the possibility that the transformation of homo erectus to homo sapiens took place in the Chotanagpur region.

Hand axes and blades were found in region of Pathalgarwa. Also number of stone weapons and tools such as axes, hammers, arrow-leads or agricultural implements found in the Godda district.

Jharkhand's shared historical essence is as old as pre historic civilization that may even pre-date the legendary Harappa.

The history Jharkhand dates backs to hundreds of years during the era of Magadha Empire. As per the Hindu Mythological book Bhavishya Purana, the area was first ruled by some tribal rulers known as the Munda Rajas. During the 500 BC in Mahajanpadas period the northern part of Jharkhand fell under Magadha (ancient Bihar) and southern part was under Kalinga (ancient Orissa) Empires. An interesting fact is that the language used by tribal people of this region resembled that of Harappa peoplewhich helped in deciphering the Harappa inscriptions.

The first clear evidence of the history of Jharkhand comes at the start of 13th century when Raja Jai Singh Deo of Orissa, according to a legend, declared himself as the ruler of Jharkhand. During the Mughal Period, ''kukara'' was the name given to the Jharkhand area. After 1765, it came under control of British Empire. However, subjugation and exploitation by British East India Company resulted in resistance from local people. It is worth mentioning here that even 100 years before India's First War of Independence in 1857, the tribals of Jharkhand had already begun to revolt against British rule. Such revolts were most rampant during the period from 1771 to 1900. Tilka Manjhi led one of the first such revolt. But these uprisings were curbed time and again by the British troops.

Tribal Movements in Jharkhand

Tribal Movements in Jharkhand
Freedom Fighters of Jharkhand

The journey through the history of Jharkhand can never be complete without the mention of important names of tribal leaders like Birsa Munda and Sidho and Kanho. Other names of tribal warriors like Jabra Paharia, Poto Sardar, Telanga Kharia, Phulo Jhano, Maki Munda and Gaya Munda too deserve mention here. Sidho and Kanho were revolutionaries who fought for the rights and welfare of the tribals. Birsa Munda, a tribal leader, is considered as 'bhagaban' by his followers. He led the tribals and prevented grabbing of their land by non-tribals (dikus). Birsa Munda was also called ''Dharti Abba". Tilka Manjhi was a Santhal leader and it was his dream to restore the ancestral lands of his people and liberate them from tyranny of unjust landlords. Earlier, the tribals used to end up as bonded labourers in their own land. Today, these names occupy an important place in the history of Jharkhand State.

The Tana Movement started in 1914 led by Jatra Oraon who in 1920 joined Satyagrah of Mahatma Gandhi and stopped giving land tax to the British Government. In 1915, the Chotanagpur Unnati Samaj was formed to pester its demand for a separate state. In 1928, when Simon Commission came to Patna and Chotanagpur , they put forward their demand which met with rejection. In 1947, Thakkar Commission rejected the idea saying it was not beneficial for the 'adivasis'(tribals). In 1948, the Dar Commission rejected the plea on linguistic grounds and the State Reorganisation Committe(1955) too turned down this idea.

Movement for Jharkhand State

The demand for a separate State of 'Vananchal' or 'Greater Jharkhand' kept lingering for a long time but was put off time and again due to political reasons. The formation of Adivasi Mahasabha helped in unanimous support by tribals as well as the non-tribals for formation of a separate state. This was rechristened as Jharkhand Party in 1949 and under the flagship of Jaipal Singh, flourished as the largest opposition party in Bihar Assembly. This further strengthened the stand for a separate state. However, in 1963, Jaipal Singh joined Congress Party and the influence of Jharkhand Party gradually faded.

In 1972, JMM (Jharkhand Mukti Morcha) emerged under Santhal leader Shibu Soren. The movement got a new lease of life and the long standing demand for a separate state was once again reiterated. Prime Minister Shri Rajiv Gandhi set up a CoJM (Committee on Jharkhand Matters). After prolonged discussions and negotiations between the Centre, Bihar Government and the leaders who stood for the cause (i.e. formation of a separate state), what followed was the formation of JAAC (Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council) in 1995.

Later, in July 1997, Shibu Soren extended support to the minority government of RJD leader Lalu Prasad Yadav on the condition of a separate Jharkhand Bill being passed. Rajya Sabha passed the Bihar Reorganization Bill, 2000. With the approval of the Parliament on the formation of Jharkhand State and consent of President K.R.Narayanan to this bill, the stage was set for celebrations.

On 15th November 2000, the birth anniversary of Birsa Munda, Jharkhand State was carved out of the southern part of Bihar. Babulal Marandi of BJP was sworn in as its Chief Minister by Governor Prabhat Kumar. The drum beats and bursting of fire crackers were testimony to the fact that the long drawn struggle of santhal leaders and tribals had borne fruit at last. Today, Jharkhand is all set for advancement in every field, be it sports, technology, industry or entertainment.

Geography of Jharkhand

Geography of Jharkhand
Map of Jharkhand

The major part of Jharkhand state is situated in Chota Nagpur Plateau, and is covered with dense forests. It is located in eastern India and is surrounded by Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east.With a geographical area of nearly 79.70 lakh hectares the state has a diverse topography of plain land and hilly regions. A number of rivers like Damodar, Brahmani, Koel, Subarnarekha and Kharkai flow through the state forming majestic waterfalls in the hilly regions. The state has many Hills & mountain ranges like Tagore Hill, Canary Hill, Parasnath Hill, Fuldungri, Trikut Hill, Nandan Hill, etc. lending it a cool climate and abundant scenic beauty. The plains of Jharkhand are very fertile and has different types of soil like the Red soil found in the Damodar valley and Rajmahal area, Micacious soil (having mica particles), found in Koderma, Jhumri Telaiya, Barkagaon, and Mandar hill areas, Sandy soil, found in Hazaribagh & Dhanbad regions, Black soil in Rajmahal area and Laterite soil which is mostly found in western part of Ranchi, Palamu, and some parts of Santhal and Singhbhum.

Climate of Jharkhand

Jharkhand enjoys a moderate type of climate. The State witnesses cold weather from November to February. This is also the most pleasant time of the year. Most tourists visit the state during this season. March to mid-June are hot with May being the hottest month. Hot winds blow during the day time and people cover their faces while travelling. However, nights are cool and comfortable. Mid-June to October is the time when the state enjoys heavy rainfall. The rainfall ranges from 1,000 mm (in the west central part) to around 1,500 mm in the southwest regions. Maximum rainfall is during the months of July and August. The Capital town of Ranchi enjoys dry weather and very less humidity. The temperature in Ranchi, during winters, ranges from 10 degree Celsius to 22 degree Celsius. During summer months, the temperature here varies from 20 degree Celsius to 37 degree Celsius.

Geography of JharkhandJharkhand is quite very rich in mineral resources.
Damodar is one of the prime rivers of Jharkhand.
Major portion of Jharkhand lies in Chotanagpur Plateau.
Jharkhand’s East Singhbhum region is the major producer of Uranium in India.
Coal is the most significant and profuse fossil fuel found in aboundance in Jharkhand.
Jawaharlal Nehru Biological Park in Bokaro Steel City is the largest Zoological Garden in Jharkhand.

Mineral Resources in Jharkhand

Mineral Resources in JharkhandJharkhand is endowed with minerals such as iron, coal, bauxite, limestone, copper, graphite and asbestos. Coal and iron as natural resources are abundant in the state. Coal is found in Jharia , Rajmahal, Bokaro and Chatra districts of Jharkhand. The state has deposits of iron ores of Hematite and magnetite. There are 22 limestone mines, spread across Palamu, Hazaribagh, Ranchi and Singhbhum districts. Limestone is mainly used to manufacture cement. Graphite, a soft crystalline form of naturally occurring carbon is found in Palamu, Garhwa and Latehar district. The presence of abundant natural resources has led to setting up of industries which include Iron and Steel, cement, coke ovens, washeries and refractories. Industries pertaining to ceramic, sponge iron, graphite processing, granite cutting and polishing etc. are also there.

Rivers in Jharkhand

Important rivers flowing in Jharkhand are Barakar, Damodar, Subernarekha (meaning 'golden line'), Sankh, North Koel, Son, and Phalgu. Rivers that join the Ganges from the north are Gandak, Mahananda, and Kosi. The rivers that join the Ganga from the southern part of the territory are Sakri, Punpun, Karmansa, Phalgu. Damodar is the longest river in Jharkhand. This river is also known as ''Damuda'' ('Damu' means sacred and 'da' means water in local dialect). It was earlier known as the sorrow of Bengal because it used to bring floods in regions of Hoogli, Burdhman, Howrah etc. Barakar is the largest tributary of Damodar river in the eastern region in India. It has two dams - Maithon and Tilaiya dams. The whole area where this river flows is called Damodar Valley. These rivers effect the socio-economic conditions of the people of this region by helping in agriculture. Dams like Komar, Maithon Panchet, Tilaiya have been created. Thermal Power Stations are in Bokaro and Patratu.

Types of Soils in Jharkhand

Information on the location and quality of soil and land resources help to plan for sustainable management of these natural resources. Red soil, black soil, sandy soil, micacious soil, laterite soil are found in Jharkhand. The soil has been formed from disintegration of stones and rocks. Agro forestry and horticulture, plantation of trees, measures like terracing, bunding, trenching etc. have been resorted to for soil and water conservation. The fertility status of soil depends on nature of vegetation, topography, texture of soil, climate and decomposition rate of organic matter.

Red soil: Damodar Valley, Rajmahal area
Micacious soil (contains mica particles): Koderma, Jhumeri tilaiya, Barkagaon and areas around Mandar hill.
Black soil: Rajmahal area
Sandy soil: Hazaribagh and Dhanbad
Laterite soil: Western part of Ranchi, Palamu and some parts of Singhbhum and Santhal Parganas.

Forest Cover in Jharkhand

Jharkhand is land of natural resources and because of its extensive forest, it is referred as the ''Land of forests''.About 29.61% of geographical area of Jharkhand is covered with forests. Today, the forest area extends to 23,605.47 sq. km.

Reserved Forest (RF): 4,387.20 sq. km.
Protected Forest (PF): 19,184.78
Unclassed Forest (UF): 33.49 sq. km.
Total: 23,605.47 sq. km.

(Courtesy: Dept. of Forests and Environment, govt. of Jharkhand)

Recorded Forest Cover
Dense Forest: 11,787 sq. km.(Canopy Density:>40%)
Open Forest: 10,850 sq. km.(Canopy Density: 10-40%)
Scrub Forest: 976 sq. km.

(Courtesy: Dept. of Forests and Environment, govt. of Jharkhand)

Horticulture and agro forestry has been promoted in the state. Wastelands like degraded pastures, mining or industrial wastelands, naked hills, steep sloping areas, land along the railway line, road and canals or lands not economical for agriculture have been planted with trees and medicinal plants. Bamboo, tasar, lac and sisal plantations have been done which has led to soil conservation.

Flora & Fauna in Jharkhand

Flora & Fauna in JharkhandJharkhand is rich in flora and fauna. These come under biotic resources (obtained from biosphere and having life). Number of National Parks and Zoological gardens adorn the state. Betla National Park in Latehar district is home to a wide variety of wild life like elephants (which is state animal), bisons, tigers, wild boar, sambhars, pythons, rabbits, foxes, spotted deer ('chitals'), langurs and blue bull. This park was declared as Project Tiger Reserve way back in 1974. Palamu Tiger Reserve, Hazaribag Wildlife Sanctuary, Jawaharlal Nehru Zoological garden in Bokaro (largest zoological garden in Jharkhand), too consist of many species of birds and animals. Project Elephant (1991-92) was launched in the state for conservation of wild Asiatic elephants and their habitats.

The floral diversity of the state too is impressive. Through shifts in cropping pattern, that is, from growing cereals to growing horticultural crops, the income of farmers having small farm lands has increased. Medicinal and aromatic plants are found in Jharkhand in abundance. These include Aloe vera, Andrographis paniculate, Asparagus racemosus, Bacopa monnieri, Piper longum, Rauwolfia serpentine, Wilhania somnifera, Boerhaavia diffusa etc. The state has excelled in vegetable production. Farmers are taking to organic farming and started making use of technology to enhance production. Jharkhand is gifted with natural resources - soil, rivers, flora and fauna, forests and minerals and is heading towards progress.

Culture of Jharkhand

Source: Wava India

Jharkhand is an amalgamation of age old traditions in a new state The festivals, religion, music and even surnames of various tribal groups find their origin in nature. Most of the tribal population lives in villages and depend on agriculture as their main source of livelihood. The farmers still use traditional methods of farming. Tribal dances and songs are performed in groups. The musical verses throw light on their folk lore, struggle for freedom and religious beliefs. Even the external walls of their houses in villages are decorated with paintings of trees, animals, Gods and Goddesses. Main languages spoken by people are Hindi, Santhali, Ho, Mundari and Maithili etc. About 13% of the population practices Sarna religion. They celebrate Sarhul, Tusu, Sohrai and Karma festivals with gaiety. They are simple people living in the land of abundant waterfalls, minerals, forests and other natural resources. Jharkhand government is taking keen interest in developing tourism, infrastructural improvement and industrialization in the state.

Tribes in Jharkhand

In Jharkhand, Tribals or 'adivasis' constitute 26.3% of the total population of the state. There are around 32 plus tribes in Jharkhand. Some of them such as Birhor, Asur, Birajia, Korba, Mal Paharia, Sauria Paharia, and Parhaiya are primitive tribes. Other main tribes are Bedia, Gond, Kharia, Munda, Khond, Binjhia, Kol. The population of Santhal tribe is the highest, followed by Oaron tribe and Munda tribe.Common surnames of this tribe are Barla, Kerketta, Kandir, Jojo, and Horo. However,Santhal Tribe some use ''Munda'' instead of these names. Santhal surnames are Hembram, Tudu, Murmu, Soren, Marndi etc. The tribals reside mainly in Chhota Nagpur plateau which includes Ranchi, Giridih, Hazaribagh, Palamau, Dhanbad, Bokaro, Singhbhum districts and Santhal Parganas.
The tribals lead a simple life and their folk lores, music and dances derive their themes from nature. They sing and dance in groups and celebrate festivals like Sarhul, Sohari, Karma, Tusu, Mange, Fagu with great enthusiasm. They tap their feet to the beat of traditional drums like mandar nagara, dhak, dhol singha and dhamsa.

Craft, Dance & Music of Jharkhand

Sohrai (Wall Art) and Kohvar (Oraon comb-cut) are the famous painting forms of Jharkhand which are known across the world for their artistic beauty and unique style. The people of the state are very fond of music & dance with Janani Jhumar, Pratkali, Mardana Jhumar, Faguwa being the main music forms. The popular tribal dance forms of the region are Jadur, Natua & Nachni and people dance to the tunes of folk music on special occasions and festivals.

Cuisines of Jharkhand

The food of the people is also very simple which includes mostly daal, ''bhaat'' or rice and ''phulka'' or roti which are relished with pickle or ''achar'. Their main dishes are pua, litti-chokha, pittha, thekua, tilkut etc. Local alcoholic drinks are also consumed by the people of Jharkhand. Other than the food, the people of Jharkhand also loves their dance and music. Popular folk dance, Jhumar is performed during happy occasions.

Administration in Jharkhand

Administration in JharkhandJharkhand enjoys democratically elected government with governor as constitutional head. Ranchi is the capital of the state with offices of Chief Minister, Governor & other important functionaries. The overall governance of the state is thus handled from Ranchi; Today the state has been divided into 24 districts namely Ranchi, Lohardaga, Gumla, Simdega, Palamu, Latehar, Garhwa, West Singhbhum, Dumka, Jamtara, Sahebganj, Pakur, Godda, Hazaribag, Chatra, Koderma, Giridih, Dhanbad, Bokaro, Deoghar, Khunti, Seraikela Kharsawan, East Singhbhum, and Ramgarh to facilitate efficient administration. As in the rest of India the administration in Jharkhand is based on the constitution with different administrative & judiciary systems. The Honourable Governor plays the role of the Constitutional Head while the Chief Minister is the Administrative Head, who is assisted by bureaucrats & officers in performing day-to-day administrative functions of the state.

Jharkhand High Court in Ranchi is the main court and the overall judiciary system is spearheaded by The Chief Justice. Chief Secretary leads the bureaucracy of the State with all the government offices committed to provide good governance & complete security. All the districts, except Lohardaga & Khunti, share their borders with some neighbouring state, leading to a well-developed connectivity. Jharkhand has witnessed considerable political turmoil since past many years, during its struggle for an independent state which has finally been fulfilled now. The main focus of any democratically elected government coming into power in the state will thus now be to provide a safe, secure and good environment to the residents of the state.

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Demography of Jharkhand

The state of Jharkhand has a population of nearly 32.96 million, comprising of 28% tribal peoples, 12% Scheduled Castes and 60% others. A densely populated state the density is 414 persons per square kilometre of land. The males are 16.93 million and females are 16.03 million with the sex ratio being 947 females to 1000 males.

Economic Profile of Jharkhand

Economic Profile of Jharkhand

Although Jharkhand is a new State, it is steadily heading towards industrial and economic growth. Jharkhand State is endowed with abundant natural resources like land, minerals, water and forests. Actually, 40% of minerals in India are found in Jharkhand! These are also exported to Saudi Arabia, Nepal, Bangladesh and South Africa etc. Economy of this State is dependant primarily on following major sectors:

Agrarian Economy in Jharkhand

Nearly 80% of population in Jharkhand is engaged in agriculture. This implies that agriculture has a very significant role to play in the social and economic realm in this state. The total geographical area of Jharkhand is 79 lakh hectares. The net cultivated area is 22 lakh hectares approx. 23 lakh hectares is covered with forests. The climate of Jharkhand is moderate and crops like paddy(cultivated on terraced/valley lands), bajra, sugarcane, wheat, pulses, til, maize, oilseeds(niger crop) etc. grow well here. Varieties of vegetables and fruits like tomato, brinjal, ladies finger, cabbage, gourd, mango, litchi, papaya, lemons etc. are available for people to relish. The farmers follow the traditional ways of cultivation and now government efforts have brought in technology in their fields for better yield.

Traditional Ways of Farming Used by Farmers
The tribal farmers plant legumes along with other crops. This helps in nitrogen fixation and renders fertility to the soil. Farmers also practice crop rotations and plant different vegetables on raised beds in their fields. Animal dung is used as manure. Composting is done using forest litter, vegetable wastes and animal bedding material etc.Compressed cakes of plant material and flowers are used as manure. For rainwater harvesting, just before the monsoons, ''doba'' are dug out which are lined with black polythene. Every fortnight, neem or karanj oil is poured into it to check evaporation. Another way for soil and water conservation is ''stone bunding''. Soil has been classified into Tanr mitti (upland soil) and Don mitti (lowland soil).

All these traditional methods help the farmers from various environmental changes but today, it is imperative to combine these with modern, scientific methods, train the farmers for better management of natural resources, prepare them for disaster management and proper land use for better yield. Financial assistance should also be available to the farmers.

Schemes Introduced by Jharkhand Government

  1. Under ''Kisan Kushali Yojna'', the farmers are allowed to grow more than one crop (i.e. produce dual crop). They can also rear livestock
  2. Proposal for ''Krishi Bazaar Samiti'' marketing complex at Ranchi has come as a boon for farmers
  3. The integrated Co-operative Projects scheme aims to provide financial assistance to the Co-operative societies through state government in the form of loan as well as subsidy
  4. National Agricultural Insurance Scheme aims to provide financial security to the farmers
  5. Jharkhand state government has launched ''Mukhya Mantri Kisan Credit Card Yojana''.Interest subsidy is provided to farmers who repay their loan within stipulated time
  6. The state government has also proposed to improve the infrastructure for storage of seeds and fertilizers. Construction of office buildings for field offices and godowns too will be undertaken
  7. Work for setting up processing units in Co-operative societies is under progress. Some Co-operative societies work especially for welfare of SC/ST/OBC/Women. State government gives assistance in the form of Share Capital Contribution and subsidy/grants.
  8. State Government provides Share Capital Contribution to the following state level federations:
  • JASCOLAMF (The Jharkhand State Co-operative Lac Marketing and Procurement Federation Limited.
  • VEGFED (The Jharkhand State Vegetable Co-operative Marketing Federation )
  • JHAMCOFED (Jharkhand State Minor Forest Produce Co-operative Development and Marketing Federation Limited
Government is trying to bring more area under irrigation, increase production by improving quality of seeds, fertilizers, agricultural tools and pesticides etc. Potential is being seen in horticulture, medicinal and aromatic plants which can be exported. Completion of major irrigation projects and renovation of old systems is being undertaken. Traditional irrigation systems like ponds, tanks and check dams, multiple cropping, horticulture and bio-fertilizers are being encouraged. For more schemes of the government click here.

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Industries of Jharkhand

The Industrial Policy aims at making Jharkhand one of the most preferred destination for investment, both from inside and outside the country and to ensure accelerated implementation of infrastructure related projects, increasing employment opportunities, improving productivity, ensuring homogeneous and balanced development of all Geographical regions of the State with emphasis on development of small, tiny and cottage industries. Names of important Industrial Units are furnished below:

  • Bokaro Steel Plant, Bokaro.
  • Bharat Refractories Limited, Bokaro.
  • Chandrapura Thermal Power Station, Chandrapura.
  • Indian Explosives Limited,Gomia.
  • Jay Pee Cement, Bokaro.
  • BMW Steel, Bokaro.
  • Dugda Coal Washery,BCCL, Dugda.
  • Hindustan Steel Works Construction Limited(HSCL), Bokaro.
  • ONGC, Talgaria.
  • Sundaram Steels Pvt. Ltd. , Biada.
  • Indian Oil Bottling Plant, Biada.
  • Tata Steel Plant, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Power, Jojobera.
  • Tayo Rolls Ltd. , Gamharia, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Pigment, Jugsalai, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Motors, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Yodogawa Ltd. , Adityapur, Jamshedpur.
  • Hindustan Coca Cola Beverages Pvt. Ltd. , Gamharia, Jamshedpur.
  • Usha Martin Industries Limited, Adityapur, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Rayrson, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Cummins, Jamshedpur.
  • Lafarge Cement, Jamshedpur.
  • Jamshedpur Utilities and Services Company Ltd. , Jamshedpur.
  • Jindal Steel and Power Ltd. , Potka, Jamshedpur.
  • Essar Power Ltd. at Chandwa.
  • Metallurgical and Engineering Consultancy (MECON) Ltd.

The Iron and Steel factory at Jamshedpur and the Bokaro Steel Plant are the largest plants in Asia. The biggest explosives factory is at Gomia. Due to its proximity to ports, Jharkhand has a logistical advantage too. The Jharkhand Government has planned to develop an inland port on the Subarnarekha river in East Singhbhum district. This port will provide an outlet for export cargo and will help the State to generate Rs 2,000 crore per annum in exports due to presence of major Steel companies here. About 26 mega industries, 106 large and medium industries and 18,109 micro and small industries have been set up in Jharkhand since its inception. It has led to an approximate investment of 28,424.06 crore and around 63,000 people have been employed in these industries. This has boosted the economy of the State and also improved the quality of life of the common man. Jharkhand Industrial Policy, 2001 was implemented when Jharkhand State was newly created on 15 November, 2000. Today Jharkhand Industrial Policy, 2012 stands to formulate ways such that these resources are properly utilised and new industries further boost the economy of this State.

Economic Profile of JharkhandLargest fertilizer factory of its time in India at Sindri.
First Iron & steel factory at Jamshedpur.
Largest Steel plant in Asia, Bokaro steel plant.
Biggest explosives factory at Gomia.
First methane gas well in the country.
Jharkhand has 63 percent of the country’s coal reserves.
Iron ore in form of Hematite is found in the Singbhum district.
Damodar River and Subarnrekha Rivers in Jharkhand are known for mineral reserves.

Why Invest in Jharkhand ?

Jharkhand is a new State and it is steadily progressing towards achieving new frontiers in almost every field. The State has abundance of natural resources. Dhanbad, Ranchi, Jamshedpur and Bokaro are industrial hubs. Evergreen forests, rivers, adequate availability of power and water and some of the premier educational institutions find place in this State. Air, rail and road connectivity is satisfactory for traveling and carrying out business and is being modernised. And last but not the least, Jharkhand is known for its scenic beauty and rich tribal culture. The age old tribal traditions and the new age Industrial development is what makes Jharkhand so unique.

Information on Jharkhand
Industrial Units in Jharkhand

More and more Steel, Aluminum, Cement and Power Sectors are signing MoU. The State Government too is providing various incentives to encourage investment in the State. These include Single Window Act, and Jharkhand Special Economic Zone (SEZ) Act. Some other projects which deserve mention here are setting up of industrial parks like food, automobile, agro processing, electronics and steel park, Software Technology Park (STP) of India (Ranchi), Adityapur Toll Bridge, Industrial corridor along NH-33 from Koderma to Bahragora.SEZ (Special Economic Zone) at Adityapur has been shown the green flag.

There is land available to start new industries and even expand those already present. Tata Steel Ltd. is implementing its expansion plan. 20 -25% of the total steel produced in India comes from Jharkhand. There has been an increase in Steel Production to almost 12 million tonnes per annum during the 11th plan period. MSME( Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises) are being welcomed. A number of mega industries too are trying to find base in this State.

There has been advancement and growth in Sericulture Sector, Mining and Quarrying Sector, Bio-technology and I.T. Sectors. The Government proposes to modernize and upgrade small scale industries like sericulture, handloom, khadi, textiles and handicrafts and give them assistance for proper marketing and generation of income. Setting up of new Industries will boost employment opportunities. The steady advancement of Jharkhand as compared to some other States can be gauged from the fact that the GSDP( Gross Domestic Product) of the State has increased from Rs 39191.09 crore in 2000-01 to around Rs 120010.20 crore in 2010-11. The per capita income has risen to Rs 14,992 in 2010-11. The Jharkhand Industrial Policy 2012 also encourages Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) in areas concerning Power, telecom, airports and roads etc. Infrastructural development has been given special importance. JIIDCO(Jharkhand Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation Limited), which was set up in 2004, works for developing Industrial infrastructural growth in Jharkhand. JINFRA(Jharkhand Infrastructure Development Corporation)has executed projects like Adityapur City Centre, National Housing Complex, Mega Industrial Growth Centre, and Barhi.

Government Intervention
On one hand, the Government is making policies to attract investment in Jharkhand. However, It is also keen to work on sustainable Industrial growth of the State by encouraging industries to resort to measures such as rain water harvesting, re-use of waste water and recycling, revive the sick units, work for upliftment of tribal population of the State and give them employment opportunities etc. Special incentives have been designed for women and SC/ST entrepreneurs. Most of the industries today work hard to get quality certification such as ISO 9000/14000 etc.

Healthcare in Jharkhand

Healthcare in JharkhandJharkhand has made considerable progress in the field of healthcare with many speciality hospitals, nursing homes, pathology labs, blood banks, chemist shops, etc. opening up in the state. Since ages Jharkhand on account of its healthy & pleasant climate has been considered as a healing center & health resort. Ranchi is particularly famous for the treatment of mental diseases. Central Institute of Psychiatry & Ranchi Institute of Neuro-psychiatry and Allied Sciences are the main institutes in this area. It has been noted that Fluoride in groundwater presents a major health problem in Jharkhand state leading to many bone & dental diseases and the State Government is taking suitable measures to resolve this at the earliest. Women & child healthcare is being given top priority by the government these days, with many International Agencies like UNICEF running healthcare programmes in the State. The hospitals in Jharkhand are equipped with latest medical equipments and have well-qualified medical staff are committed towards providing self-less service & excellent medical treatment to the common masses.

Other major hospitals in Jharkhand State include Itki TB Sanatorium, Ranchi provides treatment of TB, Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur offers treatment of cancer, Bokaro General Hospital for treatment of Cancer & Heart problems. Many private hospitals like Orchid Medical Centre, The Apollo Clinic, Jamshedpur, Sri Sai Hospital, Bokaro, Pragati Medical and Research Centre, Dhanbad, Tinplate Hospital, Singhbhum, etc. are providing best in class healthcare services to the people of the state. In rural areas also the Government in association with the district administration organises regular healthcare camps to provide treatment to the needy sections of the society at affordable costs. People in Jharkhand are also well-aware of alternative healthcare methods like Homeopathy, Ayurveda, Naturopathy, etc. to remain fit and healthy.

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Tourism in Jharkhand

Tourism in Jharkhand
Birsa Munda Park in Dhanbad

Welcome to the intriguing & beautiful state of Jharkhand, an important tourist destination on the map of India. The major part of the state lies in the The Chota Nagpur Plateau with many rivers like Damodar, Koel and Subarnarekha originating from the same. The peaceful natural envoirment is a solace for tourists, with abundant green forests, majestic hills, rare herbs, wildlife sanctuaries, flowing rivers, and spectacular waterfalls, etc. The unique combination of modern bustling towns, rural culture and tribal lifestyle attracts tourists from all over the world.

Nature & Eco-Tourism/Adventure Sports in Jharkhand

Eco tourism in JharkhandFor the adventure seekers & nature lovers there are numerous sites like Parasnath and Satpahar hills are paragliding and parasailing activities, Giridih reservoir for bird-watching & water sports, and Khandoli Hills for Rock Climbing & Trekking. One can explore the wide variety of flora & fauna at the many National Parks & Zoological gardens present in the state like Betla National Park (Palamu Sanctuary), Dalma WildLife Sanctuary, Birsa Zoological Park, Ranchi, Hazaribag Wildlife Sanctuary, etc. It becomes a memorable experience for the tourists to see the wilds animals in their natural habitat admist all the greenery. A number of man-made & natural attractions add to the beauty of the state like Tilaiya Dam & Patratu dam which serve as an excellent picnic spot for the tourists & local residents. Ranchi, the capital of Jharkhand boosts of gushing & picturesque waterfalls & streams falling from great heights like Dassam Falls formed out of Kanchi River, Hundru Falls from Swarnarekha River, Jonha Falls and Hirni Falls. For Eco enthusiasts the Saranda forest is an amazing place being one of the densest forests in Asia and are home to Flying Lizard, the endangered species.

Tribal & Religious Tourism in Jharkhand

The tribal lifestyle & culture with its winsome rustic simplicity will surely give you a feel of traditional village life. Jharkhand also holds the honour of being a major pilgrimage & religious place, with Baidyanath dham in Deoghar being the most sacred place in the state. Deogarh is a complex of 22 temples with the presence of Kamanalingam - a lingam which is believed to have the power to fulfil all dreams and thus is an important religious pilgrimage for the Hindus. Pahari Mandir & Jaganathpur Temple and Sun Temple in & around Ranchi, Dumka, Parasnath Temple of Jains are the other religious places which hold great sanctity amongst the devotees.

So the state of Jharkhand has something to offer to anyone with plenty of waterfalls, romantic hills, popular national parks, sacred religious places & beautiful parks, leaving the visitors refreshed & rejuvenated and coming back for more. Jharkhand is well-connected to other parts of the world and has a number of hotels, restaurants & cinema-halls offering warm hospitality, lively entertainment & comfortable stay to the tourists coming to the state.

Transportation in Jharkhand

The aim of the State Government is to develop cost-effective & revenue generating transport system whichcan allow smooth movement of goods and hassle & eco-friendly public transportation. The Jharkhand Transport Department is steering efforts for promoting infrastructure development, road safety and modern traffic management.

Air-connectivity n Jharkhand

With the advent of new technology & resources air transportation has developed in a major way across India. Jharkhand has a number of domestic & international airports to help you travel to & from Jharkahnd in the shortest time to any part of the world. Ranchi is the only city of Jharkhand, which is connected by a daily airbus flight to Mumbai via Delhi, the capital of India. The flight time to, nearest airport, Patna from Ranchi is 45 minutes. It is expected that some more flights will be added soon. Kolkata, overnight by train, is the nearest international airport. Plans are beings made to develop Bokaro Airport, Chakulia Airport, Dhanbad Airport & Sonari Airport in Jharkhand.

Roadways in Jharkhand

The state has a well-developed system of road transportation with numbers of national highways having a total length of 1844.07 kilo meters. Bus service in Jharkhand is provided by Urban Development Department in all big cities like Ranchi, Jamshedpur & Dhanbad, National Highways at an interval of 5 to 10 minutes. Besides this one can also find a large number of private buses, Auto Rickshaws, Cars, Taxis, Motor-cycles, etc. plying on the state roads, connecting all parts of the state including rural & tribal areas.

Railways in Jharkhand

Jharkhand boosts of good railway connectivity with the entire route length in being 1,955 kms. The state has nearly 97 major railway stations and railway junctions, and forms a part of the South-Eastern Railways. A few of the main Railway stations include Ranchi, Chandil Junction, Bokaro Steel City, Dhanbad Junction, Ranchi, Madhupur Junction, Tatanagar Junction, etc.A number of ply to & fro from the state transporting goods & people and connecting the region to other parts of the country.

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Media in Jharkhand

Media is now not only entertaining people but also playing a key role in making people aware of the happenings around the world. The main Electronic Media channel is the ETV Bihar/Jharkhand which airs a regular program called Johar Jharkhand at 7:30 am & 7:30 about the state news. Another regional channel of Jharkhand is the Naxatra News Hindi which is broadcasted round the clock. National channel Doordarshan as well as all other private TV channels can be seen through cable or by satellite.

Media in Jharkhand
Media in Jharkhand

The Print media is also very strong & relevant in the state and the popular Hindi Daily newspapers include Prabhat Khabar, Hindustan, Dainik Jagran, Dainik Bhaskar and Jharkhand Jagran. The Pioneer, Times of India and the Hindustan Times are the leading English newspapers; both the English & Hindi Newspapers are published from Ranchi and are available in mostly all parts of Jharkhand. Today one can easily find almost all the national magazines published across India in Jharkhand through book-stores & vendors. If one wants to read in local tribal or regional language one can get a subscription of Johar Disum Khabaris a fortnightly newspaper or Johar Sahiya a monthly magazine in Nagpuri-Sadri language or Jharkhandi Bhasha Sahitya Sanskriti Akhra a multilingual quarterly magazine.

Radio has an avid audience in Jharkhand state with Ranchi & Jamshedpur having nearly five radio stations and now a number of private FM Radio Channels have also started operations here adding to the popularity of the medium. The national channel - All India Radio is also available across the state, and has a huge audience in the rural areas.

Major Landline Telephone Connectivity in Jharkhand is provided by companies like BSNL, Tata Indicom & Reliance Communications. Major Telecom Companies like Vodafone, Airtel (GSM Service), Aircel, BSNL, Idea Cellular & Reliance Communications, Tata Indicom and Reliance Infocomm (CDMA Service) offer Mobile & Internet Services at competitive prices.With the growing reach of Internet many websites like jharkhandmirror, newswings,,,, etc. are operating in Jharkhand which have news & content related to the state.
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